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SQLite - 语法

SQLite 遵循一组独特的规则和指南,称为语法。 本章列出了所有基本的 SQLite 语法。


不区分大小写

需要注意的重要一点是 SQLite 不区分大小写,即子句 GLOBglob 在 SQLite 语句中具有相同的含义。


注释

SQLite 注释是额外的注释,你可以在你的 SQLite 代码中添加它以增加它的可读性,它们可以出现在任何地方; 可以出现空格,包括表达式内部和其他 SQL 语句的中间,但它们不能嵌套。

SQL 注释以两个连续的"-"字符(ASCII 0x2d)开始,并一直延伸到并包括下一个换行符(ASCII 0x0a)或直到输入结束,以先到者为准。

您还可以使用 C 风格的注释,它以"/*"开头并延伸到并包括下一个"*/"字符对或直到输入结束,以先到者为准。 C 风格的注释可以跨越多行。

sqlite> .help -- This is a single line comment

SQLite 语句

所有 SQLite 语句都以任何关键字开头,如 SELECT、INSERT、UPDATE、DELETE、ALTER、DROP 等,并且所有语句都以分号 (;) 结尾。

SQLite 分析语句

ANALYZE;
or
ANALYZE database_name;
or
ANALYZE database_name.table_name;

SQLite AND/OR 子句

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM table_name
WHERE CONDITION-1 {AND|OR} CONDITION-2;

SQLite ALTER TABLE 语句

ALTER TABLE table_name ADD COLUMN column_def...;

SQLite ALTER TABLE 语句(重命名)

ALTER TABLE table_name RENAME TO new_table_name;

SQLite ATTACH DATABASE 语句

ATTACH DATABASE 'DatabaseName' As 'Alias-Name';

SQLite BEGIN TRANSACTION 语句

BEGIN;
or
BEGIN EXCLUSIVE TRANSACTION;

SQLite BETWEEN 子句

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name BETWEEN val-1 AND val-2;

SQLite COMMIT 语句

COMMIT;

SQLite CREATE INDEX 语句

CREATE INDEX index_name
ON table_name ( column_name COLLATE NOCASE );

SQLite CREATE UNIQUE INDEX 语句

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_name
ON table_name ( column1, column2,...columnN);

SQLite CREATE TABLE 语句

CREATE TABLE table_name(
   column1 datatype,
   column2 datatype,
   column3 datatype,
   .....
   columnN datatype,
   PRIMARY KEY( one or more columns )
);

SQLite CREATE TRIGGER 语句

CREATE TRIGGER database_name.trigger_name 
BEFORE INSERT ON table_name FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN 
   stmt1; 
   stmt2;
   ....
END;

SQLite CREATE VIEW 语句

CREATE VIEW database_name.view_name AS
SELECT statement....;

SQLite CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE 语句

CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE database_name.table_name USING weblog( access.log );
or
CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE database_name.table_name USING fts3( );

SQLite COMMIT TRANSACTION 语句

COMMIT;

SQLite COUNT 子句

SELECT COUNT(column_name)
FROM table_name
WHERE CONDITION;

SQLite DELETE 语句

DELETE FROM table_name
WHERE {CONDITION};

SQLite DETACH DATABASE 语句

DETACH DATABASE 'Alias-Name';

SQLite DISTINCT 子句

SELECT DISTINCT column1, column2....columnN
FROM table_name;

SQLite DROP INDEX 语句

DROP INDEX database_name.index_name;

SQLite DROP TABLE 语句

DROP TABLE database_name.table_name;

SQLite DROP VIEW 语句

DROP INDEX database_name.view_name;

SQLite DROP TRIGGER 语句

DROP INDEX database_name.trigger_name;

SQLite EXISTS 子句

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name EXISTS (SELECT * FROM   table_name );

SQLite EXPLAIN 语句

EXPLAIN INSERT statement...;
or 
EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT statement...;

SQLite GLOB 子句

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name GLOB { PATTERN };

SQLite GROUP BY 子句

SELECT SUM(column_name)
FROM table_name
WHERE CONDITION
GROUP BY column_name;

SQLite HAVING 子句

SELECT SUM(column_name)
FROM table_name
WHERE CONDITION
GROUP BY column_name
HAVING (arithematic function condition);

SQLite INSERT INTO 语句

INSERT INTO table_name( column1, column2....columnN)
VALUES ( value1, value2....valueN);

SQLite IN 子句

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name IN (val-1, val-2,...val-N);

SQLite Like 子句

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name LIKE { PATTERN };

SQLite NOT IN 子句

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name NOT IN (val-1, val-2,...val-N);

SQLite ORDER BY 子句

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM table_name
WHERE CONDITION
ORDER BY column_name {ASC|DESC};

SQLite PRAGMA 语句

PRAGMA pragma_name;

For example:

PRAGMA page_size;
PRAGMA cache_size = 1024;
PRAGMA table_info(table_name);

SQLite RELEASE SAVEPOINT 语句

RELEASE savepoint_name;

SQLite REINDEX 语句

REINDEX collation_name;
REINDEX database_name.index_name;
REINDEX database_name.table_name;

SQLite ROLLBACK 语句

ROLLBACK;
or
ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT savepoint_name;

SQLite SAVEPOINT 语句

SAVEPOINT savepoint_name;

SQLite SELECT 语句

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM table_name;

SQLite UPDATE 语句

UPDATE table_name
SET column1 = value1, column2 = value2....columnN=valueN
[ WHERE  CONDITION ];

SQLite VACUUM 语句

VACUUM;

SQLite WHERE 子句

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM table_name
WHERE CONDITION;